Examples of groupthink include the Jerry Sandusky case at Penn State University and the war in Iraq. Groupthink is often characterized by the dehumanization of victims, a sense of invulnerability and an immoral, unethical or irrational decision making. It is most often present in groups that are not open to the public, such as small religious groups or some social activist organizations.Know More
The 2014 case of Jerry Sandusky is an example of groupthink. Sandusky, a defensive coordinator at Penn State, was protected from prosecution for child abuse by other professionals at the university. The coaches and professionals at Penn State acted in an immoral way and put the protection of their group before the safety of others.
When a group feels as if their actions and decisions are not subject to the same laws as others, they are influenced by groupthink. In the Sandusky case, the members of the group could have protected the victims by contacting authorities, but they failed to do so in order to protect the group. Conformity of opinion among group members is common in groupthink.
Groupthink is a concept that is often applied to political decisions. For instance, the decision to invade Iraq is considered by some to be an example of groupthink because the decision was made based on an irrational decision making process. The war in Iraq was started without seeking the support of other allies, which made the war more costly in terms of finances and casualties.Learn more about Psychology
Examples of unintentional communication include: postures, facial expression, eye gaze, pitch of voice and gestures displayed through body language (kinesics) and the physical distance between communicators (proxemics). According to experts, a significant percentage of human communication is nonverbal or unintentional. Nonverbal cues and behaviors such as handshakes and hairstyles reveal details of who a person is and have a considerable impact on how a person relates to others.Full Answer >
Examples of psychological constructs are abilities, attitudes, personality traits and emotional states. A psychological construct can refer to a person's self-esteem, athletic ability or political and religious views. Psychological constructs refer to the traits and qualities of a person that cannot be concretely identified by observation.Full Answer >
Examples of being proactive are packing a briefcase the night before a meeting, reducing the risk of crime by hiring additional police officers and doing laundry before all the clothes are dirty. Proactive means acting in expectation of future needs or problems.Full Answer >
Examples of primary reinforcers, which are sources of psychological reinforcement that occur naturally, are food, air, sleep, water and sex. These reinforcers do not require any learning process in order to be effective; therefore, they are considered unconditional.Full Answer >