One of the most common examples of illogical reasoning is the straw man argument, which often entails either isolating a particular part of an argument before then presenting it as an entirely individual or separate position, or using a very early form of a theory to support a case while ignoring the fully developed theory itself (attacking Darwinism using only Darwin's work as a source for example, ignores all the progress made since, so is not valid). Finding a source that offers an extreme view or unrealistic account of a position, then treating it as fact, is also a straw man argumentKnow More
Another form of illogical reasoning is the circular argument. This involves making a conclusion from an initial premise which is in turn entirely dependent on the conclusion itself, thus actually failing to prove anything. Circular arguments can be simple or complex, and can be harder to identify the more complex they become.
One example of a circular argument might be: Mr. smith is a great public speaker, because Mr. Smith has a knack of speaking well to people. This fails to prove Mr. Smith is a good public speaker at all, because the premise that he is a good speaker is based on the conclusion that he is a good speaker.Learn more about Logic & Reasoning
Although there is no definitive strategy for winning every argument, techniques for arguing more effectively include using facts, asking questions, listening carefully and acknowledging a good point. Effective debaters make use of these techniques to disarm opponents and persuade audiences.Full Answer >
An inductive argument is an argument with which the arguer wants to increase the likelihood of its conclusion. The strength of the conclusion is dependent on the strength of each theory that supports it.Full Answer >
Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that undercut an argument or thesis. On the surface, fallacies may seem to strengthen an argument, but in fact they rarely hold up to critique or rebuttal. Logical fallacies are often identifiable by a lack of evidence to support their claim.Full Answer >
Systems theory is the complex interdisciplinary study of every type of phenomena occurring in this world. It takes into account different properties such as substance and type of phenomena. Systems theory also employs effective mathematical models to better describe the details involved.Full Answer >