In biology, a stimulus is a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to change its behavior in order to make the environment more satisfactory. For instance, hunger motivates animals to seek food, predators stimulate prey to run away or hide, and falling temperatures encourage creatures to seek shelter or find warmth in other ways.
When something in the environment stimulates an animal, its central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord, organizes the response. The stimulus is sensed by the animal, and its sensory neurons carry that information to the central nervous system. This directs the motor neurons to respond in a specific way, and the animal carries out that order.Learn More
The representativeness heuristic is a mental shortcut that judges the likelihood of an event by comparing it to a mental prototype of the event. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman first described this particular type of heuristic in the 1970s.Full Answer >
Research has shown that laughing has a definite social function, but it also may serve an evolutionary function as a way of demonstrating harmless playfulness to other humans, showing that we are intending to be friendly rather than threatening. Human beings aren't the only animals that laugh; apes are also known to laugh, particularly in conditions that also cause humans to laugh, such as a response to being tickled and a vocalization during play. People tend to laugh mostly when they are around other people, though some people may occasionally laugh out loud while they are alone, and laughter is such a big part of human vocalization that most people have different laughs that they use in different situations.Full Answer >
Nature refers to traits and characteristics that are inherited or genetic in origin, while nurture refers to traits and qualities that are learned by organisms as they grow. The terms "nature" and "nurture" consist of many different subcategories in the field of psychology. These categories fall under several different approaches and theories, which work together to describe the complex characteristics of humans and animals.Full Answer >
While guilt does not necessarily have symptoms, it may have side effects. These include a disruption in self-image, susceptibility to distractions, developing a habit of putting others down, hypersensitivity to minor criticisms, and paranoia.Full Answer >