One example of defensive listening is to hear a general statement and to personalize it. When a friend says, "I'm not a big fan of people who are fake," a defensive listener may infer that the friend is indirectly calling the defensive listener fake. Personalizing impersonal statements is a very common form of defensive listening.
Defensive listeners tend to struggle with sarcastic humor as well, because they may assume that the speaker is putting them down in spite of the humor. While this is sometimes the case with sarcasm, it isn't always true. A colleague might joke, "John can stay and work on Saturday because it's not like he has anything else happening today." The speaker's sarcasm may stem from the fact that John has a family and is known to be quite busy. However, a defensive listener may miss the sarcasm and begin defending the fact that he does have a busy weekend.
A person with strong anxieties and insecurities is more likely to react badly when listening defensively. A spouse may say, "I've got a few other things to do, and then I'll get to that," in response to a request to complete a task. A defensive listener may view the delay as a lack of caring or interest in helping.Learn More
Examples of mannerisms are found in a person's gestures and speech patterns. Mannerisms include suspicion, defensiveness, nervousness, frustration, confidence and cooperation.Full Answer >
Examples of psychological constructs are abilities, attitudes, personality traits and emotional states. A psychological construct can refer to a person's self-esteem, athletic ability or political and religious views. Psychological constructs refer to the traits and qualities of a person that cannot be concretely identified by observation.Full Answer >
Examples of instrumental aggression include armed robbery, shoplifting, bombing cities to win a war and a parent physically disciplining their child to make them behave differently. Instrumental aggression is aggression for the purpose of gaining a reward or outcome. Instrumental aggression is also known as proactive aggression.Full Answer >
Some examples of learned behavior are a dog that is taught to roll over or a recently hatched goose that imprints on something other than its mother. Learned behavior is shaped through experience, such as through the application of rewards, punishments or constant conditioning.Full Answer >