Faulty cause and effect reasoning incorrectly concludes that one thing causes another, presuming that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one causes the other or that one event must have caused a later event simply because of its temporal sequence. This type of reasoning is one of the most common logical fallacies. In propaganda, faulty causation is used both to disparage or promote an idea or product.Know More
According to Logically Fallacious, the faulty cause and effect fallacy is known by many different terms, including post hoc, ergo propter hoc, the fallacy of false cause, faulty cause, arguing from succession alone, ignoring a common cause, confusing correlation and causation, confusing cause and effect and third cause. This logical fallacy is related to the fallacies of juxtaposition, slippery slope and reversing causality/wrong direction.
Fallacies and persuasive techniques are used in propaganda, which Dictionary.com defines as "information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement." Examples of faulty cause and effect in propaganda are seen in advertisements in which the use of a product is credited for creating a positive result. Other examples of causation in propaganda frequently are found in political campaign materials in which negative events are attributed to being caused by a candidate's election.Learn more about Psychology
The "Rosenthal effect" is another name for the observer-expectancy effect, or the idea that the expectations or biases of a researcher can have an effect on the results of an experiment. The effect is named for the research of Robert Rosenthal in this area.Full Answer >
The Stroop effect is an increase in reaction time for a given task, when the brain simultaneously deals with conflicting information. The Stroop test, in which subjects need to name the color of the ink of the given word regardless of the word’s actual meaning, studies this phenomenon.Full Answer >
A helping relationship is one in which one or both parties benefit from relating to the other. Most specifically, a helping relationship is one between a doctor or counselor and the patient.Full Answer >
In psychology, a functional relationship is a relationship in which the value of one party is dependent on the value of a second party. A relationship is considered functional when there is respect, accountability and resilience. A functional relationship offers an emotionally safe environment for the people involved and respects privacy of space.Full Answer >