Five of the characteristics of a civilization are literacy, public architecture, public wealth, professions and a social hierarchy. The existence of urban centers, infrastructure and permanent habitations are also considered as defining characteristics of a civilization. Many other defining characteristics exist, and while the type and number can depend upon the source consulted, a civilization is often most broadly defined as any complex state society.Know More
Carroll Quigley defined civilization as "a producing society with an instrument of expansion" in 1979. The "instrument of expansion" refers to a variety of social organizations that, in combination, are able to satisfy basic human needs. Quigley also added that a society becomes a civilization when it develops a writing system and a city life.
Samuel P. Huntington, in his 1993 book "The Clash of Civilizations," defined a civilization as "the highest cultural grouping" and the "broadest cultural identity" of which people are capable of. Huntington's defining characteristics include common objective elements, such as history, language and religion, along with the subjective self-identification of the people who comprise the civilization.
Albert Schweitzer, in his book "The Philosophy of Civilizations," outlines the idea that dual opinions exist within society regarding civilizations: one in which a civilization is viewed as a purely material concept, and the other in which a civilization is seen as both material and ethical. He stated that the then-world crisis, in 1923, was the result of humanity having lost sight of the ethical concept of civilization.Learn more about Cultures & Traditions
Japanese people are characterized as having straight, black hair and dark eyes. On average, Japanese people are shorter than those of European descent and have less body and facial hair, as well as flatter faces, smaller noses and wider cheekbones.Full Answer >
Although there are great regional variations in traditional German dress, there are also certain consistencies between men and women's garb that can be identified. For women, there is the bodice called the dirndl. For men, there is the famous short pants outfit called lederhosen. Collectively, such traditional garb for both sexes is called "tracht," derived from the German verb, "tragen," meaning "to wear."Full Answer >
A University of Athens 2012 study determined that Greeks' hair and eye colors are predominantly brown. Although common traits based on nationality can be studied, physical and personality traits as well as stereotypes, or traits that have a negative connotation, cannot be generalized by a person's country of origin.Full Answer >
According to a 2014 questionnaire conducted by the British Council, British people are most recognized for their good manners, sense of humor, love of alcohol, pride in their country and unappetizing cuisine. People complained in the survey that the British are also ignorant of cultures outside their own and are intolerant of non-British people. Alternatively, they are considered to be friendly, well-educated and law-abiding.Full Answer >