The five stages of human development according to Freudian psychosexual theory are: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. This controversial theory was proposed by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud to describe how personality develops in relation to the discovery of erogenous zones through a set of five distinct stages from early childhood into adolescence.Know More
In the oral stage, the mouth is the main pleasure center. The instinctual tendency of young infants to suckle during this stage is described as a manifestation of the need to satisfy this pleasure center. Freud argued that denying children this suckling instinct was what led to the development of negative habits such as nail biting and thumb sucking.
During the anal stage, toddlers begin to experiment with a second erogenous zone that they become aware of, the anus. They learn to control their bodily functions and find pleasure in relief after being denied the need to use the toilet.
In the phallic stage, Freud proposed that preschoolers began to become aware of their genitals. During this stage, children discover the differences between themselves and the opposite sex, most commonly through their respective mothers and fathers. During this stage, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts can form in boys and girls respectively.
After these first three stages, the toddler goes into a stage of latency during which sexual instincts subside, and the conscience begins to form.
The final, genital stage involves the return of sexual impulses, leading to appropriate social behavior if the initial stages were successful or depraved sexual behavior if they were not.Learn more about Psychology
Jane Loevinger's stages of ego development are best described as climbing a set of steps that lead up a mountain, with each step allowing a person to get a better perspective and see more of the world. Loevinger proposes nine stages of ego development occurring throughout a person's life.Full Answer >
The five stages of loss and grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. According to the Kubler Ross model, these stages occur when someone experiences a death, the loss of a relationship or a similar loss.Full Answer >
Developmental norms refer to milestones and stages of physical, cognitive or emotional development expected at any given age. Physical developments refer to changes in the body and the ability to control it. Cognitive developments refer to changes in the mind and psychology and to growth of knowledge. Emotional developments are changes to the ability to handle emotions.Full Answer >
Emotional development refers to a child's growing ability to regulate and control emotions and to form secure relationships. It differs from cognitive development, which readies a child for school, in that it prepares a child to take on a greater degree of responsibility for his or her internal state. Growing scientific evidence shows that a child's experiences during the early years play a significant role in emotional development.Full Answer >