One example of false cause and effect is using the scientific observation that increased temperature correlates with increased pressure to make the assumption that temperature causes pressure. Another example is observing that the speed of a windmill is faster when the wind is faster and assuming that the windmill is the cause of the faster wind.Know More
Types of false cause and effect typically fall into three categories: reverse causation, bidirectional causation and the common-causal variable. Reverse causation refers to noting two related events, A and B, where A causes B but a person assumes that B is causing A. For example, noting that a hot oven contains hot food can lead to the incorrect assumption that the hot food caused the oven to become hot, rather than that the hot oven caused the food to become hot.
The bidirectional causation logical fallacy occurs when both A causes B and B causes A, but the assumption of effect is that only A causes B or only B causes A. In the common-causal variable of false cause and effect, the relationship between A and B is assumed without considering the presence of a third variable. This type of fallacy is sometimes explained by the sentence, "Correlation is not equal to causation." For example, using the observation that both obesity and CO2 levels have increased since the 1950s to conclude that CO2 level increases caused the increase in obesity is a common-causal variable fallacy. A third variable may explain both increases.Learn more about Logic & Reasoning
One of the most common examples of illogical reasoning is the straw man argument, which often entails either isolating a particular part of an argument before then presenting it as an entirely individual or separate position, or using a very early form of a theory to support a case while ignoring the fully developed theory itself (attacking Darwinism using only Darwin's work as a source for example, ignores all the progress made since, so is not valid). Finding a source that offers an extreme view or unrealistic account of a position, then treating it as fact, is also a straw man argumentFull Answer >
An example of a logical appeal is encouraging someone to quit smoking because of the noted health risks associated with smoking tobacco. Essentially, a logical appeal is used to convince someone a generally accepted truth is valid. Logical appeals are harder to dispute than other kinds of appeals, such as emotional appeals and ethical appeals, because they are a result of facts rather than feelings or opinions.Full Answer >
An example of an either-or fallacy is "Do people need water or air?" This is an either-or fallacy because people actually need both water and air to survive.Full Answer >
An irreversible chance is a change that is impossible to reverse; this is often seen in chemistry or physics as a change that can only go in one direction, notes TheFreeDictionary.com. For example, Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone, which is an inhibitor of the enzyme chymotrypsin, is an example for irreversible change.Full Answer >