Formal observation refers to the precise, highly controlled methods that take place in a laboratory setting, while informal observation is a more casual observation of the surrounding environment. Anthropologists and others in the soft sciences often make use of informal observation, while hard sciences generally require more stringent methods of empirical assessment.Know More
Audience Dialogue describes formal and informal observations as two equally crucial components of information gathering. The main goal behind any type of observation is to gather data about the subject or subjects being observed. Informal observation can be as simple as watching people from a park bench and noticing trends or patterns in their appearance and clothing.
The Cleremont College of Biology delves into the nature of formal observation and notes how crucial it is to ensure that all observations are made with the utmost objectivity. Informal observations are subjective to a degree, but all measures are taken to ensure that a formal observation is without subjectivity. To do this, most researchers set up a series of controls that allow them to watch the chosen subject with as little interference and distraction as possible. This ensures that any information gathered is true to the subject's usual behavior and not changed by the observer.Learn more about Psychology
Traditional cognitive intelligence is the ability to plan, reason, and use logical deduction to solve problems, but also the capability to apply abstract thinking while learning from and responding to the environment. Cognitive intelligence is measured in terms of IQ, the score given by a standardized intelligence test.Full Answer >
People with controlling personalities feel a compulsive need to be in charge of their environment and dictate other people's behavior. They are unable to admit mistakes, assume authority without being asked, always insist on being right, are hostile to criticism and micromanage friends, family and co-workers.Full Answer >
Psychological noise is defined as a person's internal preoccupations, prejudices, opinions and other qualities that affect his ability to understand and communicate in an environment. Noise by definition is a distraction of sorts that interferes with communication, and psychological noise is a distraction from within rather than outside the individual.Full Answer >
An instinct is a hard-wired, inborn behavior that enables a human or animal to cope with its environment. An infant grasping an object placed in the palm of his hand, breathing, a spider spinning a web and a bird building a nest are all examples of instinctive behavior. Learned responses are not instincts. Instincts help humans and animals avoid danger, form groups and even choose mates.Full Answer >