There are four fundamental ethical principles and five major ethical theories. The four fundamental ethical principles are respect for autonomy, beneficence, justice and nonmaleficence. The five major ethical theories are deontology, utilitarianism, rights, casuist and virtue.Know More
Autonomy, the first of the four fundamental principles, is to respect others' choices and human dignity, while beneficence is to bring about good in all actions. Justice is the obligation to treat others fairly, and nonmaleficence is to cause no harm or the least amount of harm possible.
Deontology, one of the five major ethical theories, is to adhere to duties and obligations in an ethical dilemma, while utilitarianism is choosing the action which provides the greatest benefit to the majority of people. Rights suggests that the rights set forth by society are ethically correct and should be high priority. Casuist uses previous ethical dilemmas to judge the best possible outcome, and virtue judges a person by their character rather than a single act which is out of the norm.Learn more about Ethics
Some common ethical principles include honesty, equality, respect for rights, integrity and adherence to the law. While these are all fairly standard ethical principles, their precise applications depend on the setting. For instance, the implications and importance of ethical principles vary greatly between medical and business environments.Full Answer >
Human values are the principles, standards, convictions and beliefs that people adopt as their guidelines in daily activities. Principal human values are the foundation on which professional ethics are built. They are a set of consistent measures and behaviors that individuals choose to practice in the pursuit of doing what is right or what is expected of them by society. Most laws and legislation are shaped by human values.Full Answer >
There are a number of arguments against utilitarianism; many of these take issue with utilitarianism's seeming lack of concern with the principles of justice, promises and personal loyalty. Other criticisms focus on utilitarianism's apparent impracticality. Still, some detractors take issue with utilitarianism's tendency to lead one to distasteful moral decisions.Full Answer >
An ethical issue brings systems of morality and principles into conflict. Unlike most conflicts that can be disputed with facts and objective truths, ethical issues are more subjective and open to opinions and interpretation.Full Answer >