Travis Hirschi's social control theory of juvenile delinquency stated that delinquent behavior was caused by a lack of social attachments. Later, he modified his ideas and proposed the self-control theory of crime, which suggested that crimes were committed due to criminal opportunity and lack of self-control and that the degree of parenting a child received was the determining factor in whether or not he would commit crimes.Know More
In 1969, Travis Hirschi put forth his social control theory in his book "Causes of Delinquency." He claimed that the absence of social bonds and lack of social interaction with parents, teachers, friends and others caused a decrease in acceptance of social norms and recognition of morals, exacerbating tendencies toward juvenile delinquency.
In 1990, Hirschi collaborated with Michael R. Gottfredson on the book "A General Theory of Crime," in which they proposed that a person's level of self-control stabilizes by the age of 8, depending on how he is reared as a child. This put a lot of responsibility of whether or not a child would eventually commit crimes on the parents. According to Hirschi and Gottfredson, a child reared in a stable environment would be far less likely to commit crimes than a child that was neglected or abused. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, these theories became very popular among criminologists in America, though they were also widely criticized as being inherently flawed.Learn More
The theory of marginality in social economics, first coined in 1928 by Robert Park in his work "Human Migration and the Marginal Man," attempts to explain inconsistencies in the perceived value of individuals via reference to their social class or ethnicity, race or culture. Cultural marginality, for example, refers to the dilemmas of cross-cultural contact and assimilation.Full Answer >
The functionalist theory argues that every piece of society is interdependent and contributes to the functioning of society as a whole unit. If the functionalist theory is correct and everyone understands how each segment functions within the unit of society, then it breeds stability, prosperity, order and productivity. If a society is a functionalist society and the theory fails, then the society is either doomed to fall into chaos or the members of the society must quickly adapt to regain the order, stability and productivity of the society.Full Answer >
Modernization theory describes the development and process of modernization in societies, particularly in regard to the industrial societies of North America and Western Europe. It posits that the development of a society can be predicted in stages from its inception to its growth into a fully modern culture.Full Answer >
A control group is a group of individuals or cases that are assigned to an experimental group and are treated the same as the experimental group; however, they are not aligned with the experimental treatment or the experimental factor. In scientific testing, the control group is important because they ensure that placebo effects can be separated from the actual outcome of each experiment.Full Answer >