Hypatia was the head of the Platonist school in Alexandria, Egypt, during the early 5th century. She was the daughter of a prominent Greek mathematician and had trained in Platonist philosophy at the Academy in Athens. Her work in Alexandria, which was then a great center of scholarship in the ancient world, centered on teaching science and philosophy classes.Know More
Hypatia was reputed to be very beautiful, and her close friendship with the Roman governor of Alexandria put her at the center of local political intrigue. At the time of her death, in 415 or 416, the governor, Orestes, was embroiled in a dispute with Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, over regulations relating to Jewish dancing competitions in the city. Tensions escalated into violence, with Cyril driving Jewish Alexandrians out of the city.
For her support of the governor and the suspicion that her counsel was frustrating efforts at reconciliation, Hypatia became a target of the local Christian congregation's wrath. One night, as she traveled home by carriage, a mob set upon her and dragged her to a local church. There, she was stripped and murdered with ostrakois, which is usually translated as "oyster shells" but which probably means either roofing tiles or pottery shards.Learn more about Philosophy
A metaphysical conceit is a drawn out metaphor popular among poets from the 17th century. It likens the qualities of people to physical objects and tends to focus on ideas like love and death. Sonnets are a popular form of metaphysical conceit.Full Answer >
Modern rationalism was a period during the 17th century in which philosophers believed that mathematics and geometry were appropriate foundations on which to base philosophical methodology. Modern rationalism is commonly referred to as epistemological rationalism. Descartes was the first modern rationalist, and was followed by several others, including Benedict Spinoza and G.W. Leibniz.Full Answer >
Karl Marx's theory of social change relates to the class struggle that defined the 19th century, namely that of the ruling classes (the bourgeoisie) suppressing the working classes (the proletariat), and as a result Marx's theory of social change stated that economic needs should be pursued purely on the basis of need while providing general well-being for all. This theory is and was at odds with capitalism, which, according to Marx, only helped fuel class divisions.Full Answer >
Archimedes went to school at the Royal Library of Alexandria in Egypt under the guidance of former students of the mathematician Euclid. He continued studying mathematics, physics, astronomy and military techniques after returning to his native city in Syracuse, Sicily.Full Answer >