The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics.Know More
Divided into the topics of ethics and aesthetics, axiology is the philosophical study of value. Ethics involves the principles of morals and rules. The subject matter is examined in relation to individual conduct, social agreements and organizational values. Aesthetics encompasses the studies of standards, judgments and feelings in relation to the arts.
Epistemology is the study of human knowledge. It attempts to explain the origin and nature of knowledge. It also investigates the methods for learning, and the scope, integrity and limits of human understanding. The challenges of contextual variation are included in this branch of philosophical study.
Also referred to as ontology, metaphysics explores the nature of reality. It includes inquiries and theories about the universe, and the relationship between mind and matter.
The study of logic in philosophy examines the concept of reasoning. Understanding the nature of thought processes is central to this area of philosophy. It proposes theories about how inferences are made.
Methods of forming ideas, such as deductive reasoning, are evaluated. Logic studies also evaluate the use of generalizations, classifications and judgments.Learn more in Philosophy
Although a follower of Voltaire's deist beliefs early in his life, Denis Diderot became an ardent atheist and a believer in materialism, the view that the fundamental substance that makes up the whole of nature is matter and that material interactions produce all phenomena, even human thought and consciousness. He was a deep skeptic and a humanist, who warned against the assumption that knowledge and technology were automatically progressive.Full Answer >
Socrates believed that true knowledge had to be sought and not taught. To him, life was about internal examination and focus. He eschewed the idea of focusing on the material.Full Answer >
John Calvin's teachings centered around the complete sovereignty of God's will, which controlled everything in the universe all the time, and the scriptures, which were self-authenticating. He emphasized the hopeless total depravity of humans inherited via original sin from Adam. Regardless of any good or evil outcomes stemming from people's actions, the result was always God's will. To Calvin, salvation from hell was unobtainable by choice or faith, instituting predestination.Full Answer >
Karl Marx's main ideas are labor theory of value, class struggle, alienation and communism. He is the co-founder of Marxism and has published many books, the two most famous being "Das Kapital" and "The Communist Manifesto."Full Answer >