The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics.Know More
Divided into the topics of ethics and aesthetics, axiology is the philosophical study of value. Ethics involves the principles of morals and rules. The subject matter is examined in relation to individual conduct, social agreements and organizational values. Aesthetics encompasses the studies of standards, judgments and feelings in relation to the arts.
Epistemology is the study of human knowledge. It attempts to explain the origin and nature of knowledge. It also investigates the methods for learning, and the scope, integrity and limits of human understanding. The challenges of contextual variation are included in this branch of philosophical study.
Also referred to as ontology, metaphysics explores the nature of reality. It includes inquiries and theories about the universe, and the relationship between mind and matter.
The study of logic in philosophy examines the concept of reasoning. Understanding the nature of thought processes is central to this area of philosophy. It proposes theories about how inferences are made.
Methods of forming ideas, such as deductive reasoning, are evaluated. Logic studies also evaluate the use of generalizations, classifications and judgments.Learn more about Philosophy
Aristotle classified organisms by grouping them by similar characteristics. These groups were called genera and he further divided the organisms within the genera.Full Answer >
Quantitative observation, also called quantitative data, includes information that includes numbers, measurements and statistics. Quantitative data serves as a tool to measure data in many areas, including algebra in mathematics. Quantitative data complements the use of qualitative data, which uses descriptions, adjectives and linguistic elements to describe objects and images.Full Answer >
Cesare Beccaria believes that torture is barbaric and cruel, and that it violates the principle that people must be proven guilty in the courts prior to punishment. Beccaria also does not believe in the use of capital punishment.Full Answer >
John Calvin's teachings centered around the complete sovereignty of God's will, which controlled everything in the universe all the time, and the scriptures, which were self-authenticating. He emphasized the hopeless total depravity of humans inherited via original sin from Adam. Regardless of any good or evil outcomes stemming from people's actions, the result was always God's will. To Calvin, salvation from hell was unobtainable by choice or faith, instituting predestination.Full Answer >