The observer effect in psychology, also known as the Hawthorne effect, refers to subjects altering their behavior when they are aware that an observer is present. This applies when a psychologist observes his patients or when a person is aware that he is being recorded.Know More
The original study regarding the Hawthorne effect took place in 1950, and hypothesized that awareness of being observed could temporarily improve worker behavior and increase productivity, because people tend to show increased motivation when they are shown special attention. After the study, productivity decreased and returned to normal. The observer effect is evident in television documentaries in which people are aware they are being filmed. It is possible to avoid the observer effect during studies by using unobtrusive methods so that the subject is unaware he is being observed.
The observer effect is one form of reactivity. Reactivity can also refer to subjects altering behavior based on perceived expectations of the observer. For example, the experimenter effect occurs when the observer tells subjects about their expectations, and the subjects act accordingly. The Pygmalion effect refers to students changing their behavior to meet teacher expectations. Both of the latter effects can be caused by pre-existing bias or stereotyping.Learn more about Psychology
The field of psychology can be defined as the science of the mind. Psychology encompasses the methods and processes through which psychologists study the mind. Psychology is also defined as the scientific study of the way people behave, think and feel.Full Answer >
The world needs psychology because it allows people to better understand how the mind works. Having this understanding allows mental illnesses to be better diagnosed and managed, helps people manage their relationships with those around them, encourages those with depression or anxiety to take steps to improve their conditions, and promotes an overall healthier mental state.Full Answer >
Psychological framing defines an idea, issue or reality based upon context. The concept of framing disputes the theory of rational choice. The experiments of the researchers Tversky and Khneman in 1981 suggest that the way a decision is presented has a large impact upon the choices that result.Full Answer >
Humanistic psychology is the fundamental belief that mental and social problems result when innately good people deviate from their natural tendencies. The concept, referred to as humanism, emerged in the 1950s as a response to pessimistic psychoanalysis and behaviorism that focused on tragic emotions rather than the role of choice.Full Answer >