The observer effect in psychology, also known as the Hawthorne effect, refers to subjects altering their behavior when they are aware that an observer is present. This applies when a psychologist observes his patients or when a person is aware that he is being recorded.Know More
The original study regarding the Hawthorne effect took place in 1950, and hypothesized that awareness of being observed could temporarily improve worker behavior and increase productivity, because people tend to show increased motivation when they are shown special attention. After the study, productivity decreased and returned to normal. The observer effect is evident in television documentaries in which people are aware they are being filmed. It is possible to avoid the observer effect during studies by using unobtrusive methods so that the subject is unaware he is being observed.
The observer effect is one form of reactivity. Reactivity can also refer to subjects altering behavior based on perceived expectations of the observer. For example, the experimenter effect occurs when the observer tells subjects about their expectations, and the subjects act accordingly. The Pygmalion effect refers to students changing their behavior to meet teacher expectations. Both of the latter effects can be caused by pre-existing bias or stereotyping.Learn more about Psychology
The field of psychology can be defined as the science of the mind. Psychology encompasses the methods and processes through which psychologists study the mind. Psychology is also defined as the scientific study of the way people behave, think and feel.Full Answer >
Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior and, as such, plays a number of important roles in modern society. Psychology helps people with a variety of mental health conditions. It also helps businesses target consumers.Full Answer >
The objectives of psychology are to learn about the mind's subconscious, the mind's consciousness and the reasons for human behavior. Psychology is essential to study for treating mental disorders, other biological diseases, such as Alzheimer's, and looking at the way the mind functions with memory and emotion.Full Answer >
The psychodynamic approach to psychology does not use the usual scientific routes of explanation, instead it focuses on the individual's thoughts on experiences, how they see the world and their relationships. Psychologist Sigmund Freud is considered to be the founder of the psychodynamic approach.Full Answer >