The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau encompassed an array of theories relating to political philosophy and moral psychology, particularly as they concerned human freedom. His philosophy idealized humans in a state of nature uncorrupted by society and with complete physical freedom. Recognizing a return to the natural state as impossible in modern society, Rousseau conducted philosophical explorations to identify ways to be as free as possible within given constraints.Know More
Under Rousseau's idealized social contract, free and equal humans trade their individual rights for civil rights. They voluntarily agree to come together and by unanimous consent to its authority create a civil society, a new sovereign body dedicated to the general will that acts in the interests of the good of all.
Humans became alienated from their natural state through dependence, economic and social inequalities and the extent to which people judge themselves through comparisons with others.
In Rousseau's political philosophy, inequality is unnatural and largely a product of artificial needs. To Rousseau, the advent of private property was a pivotal turning point in the decline from a state of nature, and he believed all humans possessed a natural goodness but were corrupted by society.
He advocated for a form of education that emphasized development of children's natural capacities.Learn More
Although a follower of Voltaire's deist beliefs early in his life, Denis Diderot became an ardent atheist and a believer in materialism, the view that the fundamental substance that makes up the whole of nature is matter and that material interactions produce all phenomena, even human thought and consciousness. He was a deep skeptic and a humanist, who warned against the assumption that knowledge and technology were automatically progressive.Full Answer >
Examples of manifest destiny include the war with Mexico to acquire Texas and other areas of the Southwest, the dispute with Great Britain over the Oregon Territory and the U.S. colonization of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Manifest destiny also influenced the U.S. acquisition of Native American lands.Full Answer >
According to John Locke, governments are formed through the consent of the people being governed. These political entities primarily exist to preserve the fundamental rights of the people and to promote the general welfare of the public.Full Answer >
Conformity can be seen as good or bad depending on the individual and what he is conforming to. Human beings naturally have a desire to conform to feel accepted, and those who deviate from the norm are often viewed negatively.Full Answer >