The concept of "power relations" deals with how different groups are able to interact with and control other groups. Understanding power relations is important for understanding modern sociology. However, there is considerable debate about how power relations should be defined.
In areas where different groups of people live, one group is likely to exert control over the other group. The relations can be clear and unambiguous in certain scenarios; slaves, for example, are explicitly controlled by other groups. Power relations also deal with more subtle forms of control; roles in movies are dominated by men, so many claim that patriarchal dominance privileges men over women in films.
While there is considerable debate about the specifics of real-world power relations, defining the concept has proven to be difficult as well. Some use Marxist analyses when framing relationships. Others take a post-modern and post-structuralist approach. While there are broad similarities between these different definitions in practice, no abstract descriptions are accepted by a majority of sociologists.
Examinations of power relations were key in formulating a variety of arguments in the 20th and 21st centuries. The civil rights movement was driven by examinations of power relations and race, and second- and third-wave feminism deal with the concept of patriarchal abuses of power. LGBT writers and speakers often discuss how power relations result in a biased view of gender identity and sexual attraction.