Although the ancient Nile River civilizations of Egypt and Nubia were trade partners, the two cultures were also ideological and military adversaries.The two civilizations, however, eventually shared in each others' affairs to a great degree despite their differences and armed conflicts. Various Nubians became Egyptian Pharaohs, and some historians consider Nubians and Egyptians becoming almost indistinguishable from each other as the two cultures mixed together.
Nubia was first noted in the Ancient Egyptian trade records around 2300 B.C. The Nubians, whose civilization was to the south of the Egyptians, were a source of gold, exotic woods and African animals. This extensive trade brought wealth and stability to Nubia, but the Egyptians began expanding southward into Nubian territory between 2040 B.C. and 1640 B.C. Archaeological evidence appears to support the position that the Egyptians conquered and incorporated parts of Nubian territory into their kingdom during this time. The Nubians eventually began their own expansions northward, and by the eighth century, had gained control of the Egyptian kingdom.