Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher, believed that people are naturally selfish and cruel, and governments are needed to protect them from each other. He also believed that people let themselves be ruled by dictators and kings because they make society more orderly and stable. The fear of a violent death also would motivate people to surrender their rights and submit to absolute power.
Hobbes' 1651 book, "Leviathan," established the foundation for much of Western social contract theory, which addresses the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the government over the individual. He believed that political power is based in the consent of the people and that people should be free to do whatever the law, government or ruler does not explicitly forbid.Learn More
René Descartes, French philosopher and mathematician, is generally regarded as the father of modern philosophy for establishing a beginning point for human existence, states Biography.com. His famous line, "I think; therefore I am" implied that being human requires a distinct core apart from all other matter in the universe and the ability to evaluate situations and concepts mentally.Full Answer >
Montesquieu is best known for his theory on the separation of powers. This theory has been used to create many constitutions around the world. The idea of this type of government, with the powers separated into branches, was seen in Ancient Rome.Full Answer >
The purpose of teamwork is to help increase productivity, quality and to provide a support system for each member of the team. When people work together, they are able to get feedback on their work and help when they need it. Teamwork is helpful for completing certain projects at home, school or work.Full Answer >
Aristotle is most commonly credited with formulating the building blocks of deductive logic, basic ethical and moral guidelines and laying the foundations for the biological classifications of animals. Although basic by the standards of modern science, Aristotle's classification was used for hundreds of years, and his philosophical work is still discussed today.Full Answer >