William Schutz's theory of basic needs is an interpersonal relations theory that focuses on the three most important interpersonal needs most people share: the need for control, inclusion and affection or openness. The technical name for this theory is Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation.Know More
Schutz was an American psychologist who first published this theory in 1958 in the book "FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior." According to this theory, these three needs dimensions of interpersonal relationships are sufficient to explain most interactions between people. Furthermore, the theory states that people typically enter into relationships with others in order to fulfill these basic needs.
The need for inclusion relates to a person's desire to be recognized by others through human interactions and to feel like an active participant in these relations. This is the most basic of the three needs, according to Schutz, and is necessary for a healthy existence. The need for control is the next level, which relates to a person's desire to feel like they are having an impact in their social sphere. The last level is the need for openness or affection, which is the desire to be liked or loved by others. Schutz theorizes that people often feel alienated from their surroundings when this need is not properly fulfilled.Learn more about Social Sciences
Gender equality refers to ensuring everyone gets the same resources regardless of gender, whereas gender equity aims to understand the needs of each gender and provide them with what they need to succeed in a given activity or sector. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but there are significant distinctions between them.Full Answer >
The theory of marginality in social economics, first coined in 1928 by Robert Park in his work "Human Migration and the Marginal Man," attempts to explain inconsistencies in the perceived value of individuals via reference to their social class or ethnicity, race or culture. Cultural marginality, for example, refers to the dilemmas of cross-cultural contact and assimilation.Full Answer >
Modernization theory describes the development and process of modernization in societies, particularly in regard to the industrial societies of North America and Western Europe. It posits that the development of a society can be predicted in stages from its inception to its growth into a fully modern culture.Full Answer >
The functionalist theory argues that every piece of society is interdependent and contributes to the functioning of society as a whole unit. If the functionalist theory is correct and everyone understands how each segment functions within the unit of society, then it breeds stability, prosperity, order and productivity. If a society is a functionalist society and the theory fails, then the society is either doomed to fall into chaos or the members of the society must quickly adapt to regain the order, stability and productivity of the society.Full Answer >