Here’s Everything You Need to Know About the Elusive Second Round of COVID-19 Relief Stimulus Checks

By Kate BoveLast Updated Oct 9, 2020 10:40:29 PM ET
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At a news conference on July 24, 2020, in Washington, D.C., Rep. Danny K. Davis (D-Ill.) looks on as U.S. Speaker of the House Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) speaks about the importance of extending CARES Act unemployment benefits. Credit: Michael A. McCoy/Getty Images

Updated | October 8: With ongoing relief legislation negotiations between House and Senate Democrats and Republicans continuing to go nowhere — despite House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's assurances in late September that "the House is committed to remaining in session "until [it has] an agreement that meets the needs of the American people" — it is not looking promising that a much-needed second round of stimulus checks will be coming before the November 3 presidential election. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell told Congress on October 6 that a very robust stimulus package is needed to ensure a strong, fast economic rebound, adding that inadequate relief would slow down recovery and weaken economic growth for some time.

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However, on the same day, President Trump announced that he was halting stimulus negotiations between the White House and House Democrats until after the election. The decision caused an uproar, and two days later, President Trump reversed course and called for Congress to immediately pass small bills for critical items like stimulus checks and airline assistance. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin reopened negotiations with Speaker Pelosi on October 8, further muddying the waters by insisting the president is also open to a comprehensive relief package.

On March 27, federal lawmakers enacted a $2.2 trillion economic stimulus package, known as the CARES Act, in order to help Americans navigate financial hardships in the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic. Among its many benefits, the act increased federal unemployment to $600 a week and provided many Americans with relief checks — one-time payments totaling up to $1,200 per individual who reported an adjusted gross income of $75,000 or less in 2019. While the one-time $1,200 relief check certainly helped, millions of unemployed Americans felt (and still feel) that it didn’t go far enough in mitigating the financial burdens caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

At that time, as May bills loomed close, Reps. Ro Khanna (D-Calif.) and Tim Ryan (D-Ohio) proposed the Emergency Money for the People Act (EMPA), which intended to provide stimulus payments of $2,000 a month to qualifying Americans for six months, with the option to renew the program. Moreover, to account for the delayed CARES checks, EMPA would have allowed funds to be distributed by more 21st century payment platforms, like Venmo and PayPal. Of course, that plan didn’t pan out.

In May, Democrats called for another round of $1,200 payments as part of their HEROES Act, which the House passed (but the Senate refused to take up). The Republicans’ HEALS Act, which was introduced by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) on July 27, also outlined a plan for a second round of $1,200 stimulus checks.

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In short, stimulus checks seemed to be something both sides of the aisle could agree upon. That was until Republicans introduced yet another bill in August, nicknamed the "skinny bill" — a pared-down proposal that didn't include stimulus checks at all. Following the GOP's failure to pass the "skinny bill," lawmakers are once again at an impasse — even now that March to Common Ground has been unveiled and presented as a potential solution.

The slow decision-making is frustrating, perhaps even more so for Americans without jobs since the $600 per week unemployment earnings ended on July 31 and Donald Trump's executive order to restart $400 weekly unemployment payments is still getting off the ground. According to CNBC, these proposals would "impact nearly 32 million Americans currently receiving unemployment benefits — about five times the level of the Great Recession more than a decade ago."

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How Do the Various Proposed Acts Compare to March’s CARES Act?

The number of COVID-19-related relief package acronyms that were being thrown around has made things confusing. So, first things first: What are the key differences between all of these acts? First up, the CARES Act was the $2.2 trillion economic stimulus package passed in March — it’s where that first round of relief checks and those enhanced unemployment benefits came from.

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On July 24, 2020, in Washington, D.C., Rep. Danny K. Davis (D-Ill.) speaks during a news conference about the importance of extending CARES Act unemployment benefits. Credit: Michael A. McCoy/Getty Images

As for the follow-ups, the Democratic-led House of Representatives proposed the HEROES Act in May, calling for a relief package worth triple what Republicans aimed to spend in their counter-proposal, the HEALS Act. Now that efforts to reach a compromise between the two — and to pass the GOP's subsequent "skinny bill" — have fallen flat, March to Common Ground has emerged as the latest proposal. Need a quick breakdown? We’ve got you covered.

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The Acts at a Glance:

  • CARES Act: In total, the package cost $2.2 trillion. It provided stimulus checks to many, but not all, Americans ($1,200 for single filers earning under $75,000 and $2,400 for joint filers under $125,000); provided an extra $500 for all dependents age 17 and under (excluding college students); provided enhanced unemployment benefits of $600 per week in addition to state benefits through July 31; allocated $659 billion in PPP loans for small businesses; and banned late fees until July 25 and evictions until August 24.


  • HEROES Act: Coming in at $3 trillion, this proposal would've built off the CARES Act. Eligible Americans would've received $1,200, instead of $500, for up to three dependents per household. Enhanced unemployment benefits would've extended through January 2021 for most workers and continued through March 2021 for independent contractors, part-time workers, people who are self-employed and "gig" workers. PPP loan eligibility was set to expand, and the eviction moratorium would've been extended (and expanded who was covered under that) for an additional 12 months. Lastly, the act would've allocated $300 billion total for housing programs and rental assistance and provided $58 billion in funds for grade schools and $42 billion for higher education.
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  • HEALS Act: This package totaled $1 trillion in costs and, while it proposed to uphold the stimulus check payments of the CARES Act and expand relief money for dependents ($500 for all dependents, no age limit), it also made key changes. Unemployment benefits would've dropped to $200 per week through September, then gone up to $500 to match 70% of lost wages when added with state benefits. The act would've allocated $190 billion into the PPP fund and expanded eligibility while providing money for a "return to work" bonus for people who secured new jobs. It would've also provided $70 billion to K-12 schools, with the caveat that they had to open in person, and allocated $29 billion for higher education, $1 billion for the Bureau of Indian Education and $5 billion to be used at states’ discretion. The proposal also aimed to protect businesses and schools from being sued for COVID-related issues and intended to allocate $16 billion for novel coronavirus testing.


  • The "Skinny Bill": Introduced in August, this second GOP economic relief bill proposal was a much more pared-down offering than HEROES and HEALS. Compared to the $1 trillion cost of HEALS, this bill would've cost just $500 billion, with none of that money funding stimulus checks. Instead, it would've been allocated toward funding the U.S. Postal Service, testing for the coronavirus, the PPP fund, help for U.S. schools and the enhanced unemployment provisions Donald Trump outlined in previous executive orders to continue those payments. Unemployment payments under this act would've included $300 coming from the federal government and $100 from state governments, for a total of $400 per check through December 2020. Additionally, $10 billion would've gone towards funding the USPS.
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  • March to Common Ground: This latest bill introduced in September nears the CARES Act in cost, potentially reaching $2 trillion, and again proposes one-time $1,200 stimulus checks for individuals along with one-time $500 payments per child or dependent adult. It would also provide need-based rental assistance and allocate funds to support eviction moratoriums through January of 2021. In addition, March to Common Ground would reserve $120 billion for unemployment funds and another $290 billion for small businesses and nonprofits, $240 billion of which would go towards PPP loans with the remainder reserved for various tax credits. Like the "skinny bill," March to Common Ground also includes funding for the USPS but bumps the amount up to $15 billion. In addition to over $500 billion for state aid, this latest plan would direct $145 billion to schools and childcare programs and another $100 billion to COVID-19 testing and healthcare.


Why Have These Proposed Acts Been So Hotly Contested?

While the Republican-helmed HEALS Act initially seemed to be the frontrunner, both HEROES and HEALS were hotly contested. And now that a third follow-up proposal has fallen flat and a fourth — March to Common Ground — has entered the arena in the midst of negotiation breakdowns, things are becoming even more complicated. Democrats objected to the HEALS Act because it didn’t extend unemployment benefits in full; they were also pushing for larger stimulus checks and $1 trillion in state aid.

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Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, a Republican from Kentucky, center, wears a protective mask while walking from the Senate floor at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Thursday, July 30, 2020. Credit: Al Drago/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Why did negotiations between HEALS and HEROES fall apart? Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi summed it up by noting, "We're very far apart. It's very unfortunate." The two parties ultimately failed to reach a satisfying agreement because what the groups wanted from their separate plans was so different that it was difficult to find common ground on which to work things out. And the "skinny bill" left both sides with less to work with — the simplified offering failed to make it easier to focus on the few specific issues it did address.

Now there's a new focus on the bipartisan March to Common Ground, which began facing criticism almost immediately following its introduction. Top House Democrats have noted that the plan does provide a usable framework that future bills could build off of in hopes of a compromise, but they also say that it ultimately doesn't do enough to limit the struggles many Americans are facing. In a joint statement, House committee leaders noted, "While we appreciate every attempt at providing critical relief to American families, the...proposal falls short of what is needed to save lives and boost the economy." According to Li Zhou of Vox, the cost of the bill is likely also higher than what Republican leaders would be comfortable with. Although March for Common Ground faced quick dismissal, it's clear that pressure to find a solution is mounting, especially as the presidential election looms.

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What's Happening With a Second Round of Stimulus Checks?

Specific details regarding eligibility for March to Common Ground's stimulus provisions have yet to be released. However, based on previous plans proposed by both Democrats and the GOP, the qualifications for the second round of relief checks could remain similar to the qualifications of the CARES Act. That is, individual adults who reported adjusted gross income of $75,000 or less on their 2019 tax returns could receive a one-time $1,200 payment, whereas married couples who filed jointly and made less than $150,000 could receive $2,400. Qualifying earners would receive an additional $500 for each child or adult dependent under the age of 17.

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Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, a Republican from Kentucky, center, wears a protective mask while speaking to members of the media at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., on Monday, July 20, 2020. Credit: Stefani Reynolds/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Under the CARES Act, non-citizens and undocumented immigrants living in the U.S. were ineligible for federal payments — in fact, U.S. citizens who are married to someone who is an undocumented immigrant or non-citizen were also ineligible. According to The New York Times, roughly 1.2 million American citizens are married to undocumented immigrants, meaning a large segment of the population did not receive aid. Mixed-status couples who file jointly might now qualify for stimulus relief, but nothing has been made official.

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March to Common Ground, like the other plans, incorporates policies that the public approves of and that could potentially help many Americans — particularly another set of one-time $1,200 stimulus payments. However, like the proposals before it, this latest plan is already facing its fair share of opposition among lawmakers. Although the proposal may provide some reassurance that politicians haven't abandoned a compromise yet, and although Speaker Pelosi has vowed that the House will find a way to move forward with a plan, much still remains unknown about future stimulus checks and other economic and health-focused relief. As negotiations continue to stall, many Americans are eager for answers, direction and aid. Here's hoping that all comes sooner rather than later.

Right now, decisions are still being made and everything is up in the air. Please check back for the most up-to-date information on the second round of stimulus checks and COVID-19-related relief.

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