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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_primitive

Modern primitives or urban primitives are people in developed and culturally altered post-colonial nations who engage in body modification rituals and practices while making reference or homage to the rite of passage practices in " primitive cultures". These practices may include body piercing, tattooing, play piercing, flesh ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_modification

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human ... it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration ( e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.

news.bme.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/pubring/people/A10101/up.html

Since Urban Primitive provided a supporting atmosphere in which to have these types of ... My interest in body modification extended into the varieties of ways that ... Initially Fakir's focus was to simply explore techniques used by other cultures to attain ... RAVEN: I don't beleive that our society is devoid of spiritual ritual.

www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/modern-primitives

MODERN PRIMITIVESThe Modern Primitive subculture exists primarily in North America and Europe. Members are known for their use of body modifications, ...

www.sterneck.net/ritual/nyberg-modprim/index.php

4.4 Modern Primitive Body Modification and the Relation to the "Mainstream" ..... by a subculture often dismissed or despised by "mainstream" society (see for ...

fashion-history.lovetoknow.com/body-fashions/modern-primitives

The Modern Primitive subculture exists primarily in North America and Europe. Members are known for their use of body modifications, such as blackwork ...

thesocietypages.org/cyborgology/2011/09/22/body-modification-gender-and-self-empowerment

Sep 22, 2011 ... Because they violate gender norms, body modifications like tattoos and ... cultures, they nonetheless reify the very modern-primitive divide they ...

www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S1479-3520%2803%2909004-4

... kinds of jobs and careers that provide the “goods” life extolled in a consumer society. ... As many such subcultures repudiate dominant norms, we note how they ... They include those who embrace extreme body modification, numerous ... The practitioners of extreme body modification label themselves “urban primitives ,” ...

www.lsus.edu/Documents/Offices%20and%20Services/CommunityOutreach/JournalOfIdeology/The%20Commodification%20of%20Body%20Modification%20-%20Foster%20and%20Hummel.pdf

practices in the context of pathology, class-bound deviance or subcultural ideological ... other forms of body modification, have (had) association with marginalized ... of self/other, modern/primitive, gay/straight, lower class/middle class, deviant/.