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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Doe

Thomas B. FERGUSON, Director, Department of Animal Control, a State Actor, In His Official and Individual Capacities; Brett Boe; Carla Coe; Donna Doe; Frank Foe; Grace Goe; Harry Hoe; State Actors, Advisors To Defendant Ferguson, In Their Official and Individual Capacities (identities currently unknown); Marta Moe;  ...

www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCOURTS-dcd-1_12-cv-01185/pdf/USCOURTS-dcd-1_12-cv-01185-1.pdf

Mar 21, 2013 ... Civil Action No. 12-1185 (JEB). OFFICER WILFERT, et al.,. Defendants. MEMORANDUM OPINION. Plaintiff Debra Hartley walked 225 miles from her home in Pennsylvania to Washington,. D.C., to raise ... defendants, but plaintiff must substitute named defendants for those unknown defendants after.

ecollections.law.fiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1071&context=faculty_publications

Nov 11, 2014 ... 1983 actions); Rice, supra note 16, at 895 ("Civil rights cases against unknown law enforcement officers, the most frequent uses of the Doe defendant in federal courts, best illustrates this reality."); id. at 886-87 (stating that Bivens was one of the first and most obvious uses of an unknown defendant).

scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1638&context=nlj

(W.D.N.Y.1982) (defendants listed in the original complaint as “Five Troopers who partici- pated in the acts which are the subject of this action but whose names are unknown” held to have received constructive notice through the Attorney General, the same attorney represent- ing the named defendant police officer).

www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2002/jul/15/pro-se-tips-and-tactics-unknown-defendant-identities

Jul 15, 2002 ... A recent Supreme Court case highlights a problem some prisoners face in finding the exact identities of defendants in civil rights cases. ... held that because a state is not a "person" within the meaning of 42 U.S.C. § 1983, plaintiffs could not sue either the state or a state officer in his or her "official capacity.

www.prisonlegalnews.org/news/2003/jan/15/amendment-of-complaint-to-identify-unknown-defendant-denied

Jan 15, 2003 ... Dorothy Singletary, mother of PA DOC prisoner Edward Singletary, filed a 42 U.S.C. §1983 suit against SCI-Rockville and various named PA DOC officials and "Unknown Corrections Officers," alleging cruel and unusual punishment against her son. Edward committed suicide while at SCI-Rockville.

scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1444&context=californialawreview

Treadway, 75 F.3d 230, 239-41 (6th Cir. 1996). The court in Cox denied relation back for an amendment substituting named defendants for "unknown police officers" in an arrestee's police brutality civil rights suit; the court stated that amendments to add "new parties... do not satisfy the 'mistaken identity' requirement of Rule ...

www.nytimes.com/2013/07/15/nyregion/unidentified-defendants-have-bedeviled-courts-for-decades.html

Jul 14, 2013 ... The court designation for “First name unknown, Last name unknown” has taken on a life of its own in courts around the country, with Fnu Lnus sometimes being mistaken for an actual name.

judicial.alabama.gov/library/rules/cv4_3.pdf

a period of thirty (30) days from the filing of the complaint or because the officers or agents are unknown, then such defendant shall be deemed to have avoided service and the court may, on motion, order service on such defendant to be made by publication. The mere fact of failure of service is not sufficient evidence.