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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wafer_(electronics)

A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and  ...

www.answers.com/Q/What_kind_of_wafers_are_used_at_Intel_to_make_computer_chips

Silicon, is the most abundant element on earth except for oxygen, and is used in chip manufacturing because it is a natural semiconductor.

www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/history/museum-making-silicon.html

A photolithographic "printing" process is used to form a chip's multilayered transistors and interconnects (electrical circuits) on a wafer. Hundreds of identical processors are created in batches on a single silicon wafer. Once all the layers are completed, a computer performs a process called wafer sort test. The testing  ...

www.extremetech.com/extreme/208501-what-is-silicon-and-why-are-computer-chips-made-from-it

Jun 22, 2015 ... Yet silicon, more than almost any other element, comes up all too often on a site like ExtremeTech — it is a major component in the building materials that make up your home, it's the basis of all current computer processors, and it's even the most likely candidate to underlie alien, non-carbon-based life.

www.wired.com/2010/10/inside-a-state-of-the-art-cleanroom

Oct 19, 2010 ... And to build a computer, you must first design and fabricate the tiny processors that rapidly churn through the millions of… ... Applied's machines subject silicon wafers (such as the Intel wafer shown below) to incredibly intense vacuums, caustic chemical baths, high-energy plasmas, intense ultraviolet light, ...

www.mrsoshouse.com/ext/computer1.html

6. What was ENIAC? 7. What contribution did Ada Byron make to computing? 8. What kind of wafers are used at Intel to make computer chips? Be specific! 9. What do they call the suit that cleanroom technicians must wear while making computer chips? Why is the special clothing necessary? 10. What does modem stand for ...

www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-06-09/how-intel-makes-a-chip

Jun 9, 2016 ... The layout is eventually transferred onto masks, the stencils used to burn tiny patterns on the silicon wafer and ultimately make a chip. For the E5, mask designers based in Bangalore, India, and Fort Collins, Colo., used a computer- aided design program to draw polygons to represent each transistor, ...

www.nytimes.com/2015/09/27/technology/smaller-faster-cheaper-over-the-future-of-computer-chips.html

Sep 26, 2015 ... The masks are used to expose hundreds of exact copies of each chip, which are in turn laid out on polished wafers of silicon about a foot in diameter. ... Silicon could also give way to exotic materials for making faster and smaller transistors and new kinds of memory storage as well as optical rather than ...

www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/05/05/476762969/after-moores-law-predicting-the-future-beyond-silicon-chips

May 5, 2016 ... So you're the kind of guy who's always looking to the future of computing. Exactly. What do you see there? Since about the mid-'80s computer performance has been tied closely to how small you can make a transistor. And the tracking of that is called Moore's law. ... What we've been trying to do is figure out ...