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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back-to-Africa_movement

The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or Black Zionism, .... of struggling to cope with urban life set the scene for the back- to-Africa movement of the 1920s, established by Marcus Garvey although there were ...

www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/marcus-garvey-mainstay-back-africa-movement

... who was a proponent of the "Back to Africa" movement in the United States. ... He returned to Jamaica in 1914 and shortly thereafter founded the Universal ...

www.inmotionaame.org/migrations/topic.cfm?migration=4&topic=8

In the early twentieth century, Marcus Garvey and his movement, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), founded in his native Jamaica in 1914, ...

www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/who-led-the-1st-back-to-africa-effort

The person who spearheaded “the first, black initiated 'back to Africa' effort in U.S. ... Then Freetown was founded as a settlement for freed slaves in 1792, the year ... Cuffee's movement seemed to be gaining steam among some of the most ...

news.stanford.edu/news/2006/march1/colonize-030106.html

Mar 1, 2006 ... The so-called "back to Africa" movements, which sent American ... The American Colonization Society (ACS), which was founded in 1816, had ...

www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=4

May 3, 2012 ... The ACS founded the Republic of Liberia in 1847, with its flag and constitution ... Clearly, the Back-to-Africa movement was motivated by the ...

www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/04/26/is-go-back-to-africa-always-an-insult-heres-a-brief-history-of-american-back-to-africa-movements

Apr 26, 2016 ... The phrase “Go back to Africa” seems like nothing but an insult. ... The United States has seen numerous “back-to-Africamovements from the ...

www.reference.com/history/back-africa-movement-b6675c50102225e6

The "Back to Africa" movement was a movement founded by Marcus Garvey in the early 20th century which aimed to help all African-Americans move back to ...

www.history.com/topics/black-history/marcus-garvey

After arriving in New York in 1916, he founded the Negro World newspaper, ... societies in Africa, not, as his critics charged, to transport blacks 'back to Africa. ... Garvey's movement was the first black attempt to join modern urban goals and ...