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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_space_(physiology)

In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the ... PAO2, Alveolar oxygen tension, or partial pressure ... Dead space can be increased (and better envisioned) by breathing through a long ... This adaptation does not impact gas exchange because birds flow air through their lungs ...

asknature.org/strategy/air-flow-patterns-facilitate-efficient-gas-exchange

Jun 9, 2016 ... A breath of oxygen-rich inhaled air remains in the respiratory system for ... How do birds control the air so that it flows through their lungs when ...

link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00297779

Respiration, oxygen consumption and heart rate in some birds during rest and flight ... As the O2 content of expired air did not change appreciably, the increase in ... In flight there was much less variation and there was a smaller decrease with  ...

www.livescience.com/55455-how-high-can-birds-fly.html

Jul 19, 2016 ... What allows high-flying birds to cruise at exceptional altitudes? ... The geese also hyperventilate to increase their oxygen intake while flying.

www.allaboutbirds.org/flying-on-fumes-how-birds-meet-their-oxygen-demands-at-high-altitude

Feb 23, 2017 ... Mountain climbers know the feeling of trying to perform at elevation. ... “They do it by increasing their oxygen transport with a greater number of ...

en.engormix.com/poultry-industry/forums/forum-birds-need-oxygenated-t29407

Nov 9, 2012 ... Forum: Do birds need oxygenated water? ... Oxygen concentration in water is limited by its solubility: ... Oxygenated water gives better results in birds under heat stress by increasing oxygen, feed intake, weight gain & feed ...

jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/160/1/233.full.pdf

When comparing maximum oxygen consumption during exercise in different .... 1988). Training resulted in a 27% increase in VOimax in swimming ducks (Fig. 2) ..... in the four species of flying birds listed in Table 1, there does appear to be an.

jeb.biologists.org/content/214/15/2455

Birds that fly at high altitudes must support vigorous exercise in oxygen-thin environments. ... High-altitude birds also have larger wings than their lowland relatives to ... the primary site of O2 consumption during flight); and (5) metabolic utilization .... Although these distinctive characteristics of birds should enhance hypoxia ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528520

Jun 24, 2015 ... What the rate of oxygen consumption does and does not tell us .... acclimation, since, in birds, ANT rather than UCP is believed to be the principal ... controls; they did not increase their food consumption and so were unable to ...