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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnitude_(astronomy)

In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object, measured in a ... The brighter an object appears, the lower the value of its magnitude, with the brightest objects reaching negative values. ... classified stars by their apparent brightness, which they saw as size (magnitude means "bigness, size").

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_magnitude

The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse ... This rather crude scale for the brightness of stars was popularized by Ptolemy in his Almagest, and is generally  ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_magnitude

A galaxy's magnitude is defined by measuring all the light ... as the brightness of a single point-like or star-like source, and ... have such a low absolute magnitude that they would appear bright enough to outshine the planets and cast shadows if they were at 10 parsecs from the Earth.

www.space.com/21640-star-luminosity-and-magnitude.html

Oct 11, 2017 ... The brightness of a star is measured several ways: how it appears from Earth, ... how bright the star appears from Earth — and absolute magnitude ... how bright they appear — the brightest stars were 'magnitude 1,' the next ...

curious.astro.cornell.edu/about-us/82-the-universe/stars-and-star-clusters/measuring-the-stars/391-how-do-astronomers-measure-the-brightness-of-stars-intermediate

Jun 27, 2015 ... For instance, from Saturn, the Sun will not appear like the brilliant Sun of the Earth, but ... So, to measure the brightness (the scientific term is luminosity) of ... Then, as one knows the distance to the star, one can determine how ...

www.e-education.psu.edu/astro801/content/l4_p5.html

If you notice, the magnitude system is therefore backwards–the brighter a star is, ... That is, the apparent magnitude of a star is its magnitude measured on Earth. ... magnitudes to classify stars based on how they would appear if they were all at ...

www.e-education.psu.edu/astro801/content/l4_p4.html

Stars have a wide range of apparent brightness measured here on Earth. The variation in their ... Why do light sources appear fainter as a function of distance?

www.astronomynotes.com/starprop/s4.htm

Nov 2, 2010 ... The brightness of stars are specified with the magnitude system. ... They established that a difference of 5 magnitudes corresponds to a factor ... The apparent brightness of a star observed from the Earth is called the apparent magnitude. The apparent magnitude is a measure of the star's flux received by us .

www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-resources/the-stellar-magnitude-system

Aug 1, 2006 ... Most ways of counting and measuring things work logically. ... They had already determined that a 1st-magnitude star shines with about .... Up to now we've been dealing only with apparent magnitudes — how bright things look from Earth. ... the closest star to the solar system, would appear to be magnitude ...